Special thanks for the fotos to Anders Salesjö from Sweden.
IUCN Red List status: near threatened
Eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Norway, North Sea and the western Baltic southward to Morocco and Namibia, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Although reported from southern Africa, but its status in the area is uncertain.
Inhabits shelf and upper slope waters.
Depth range from 10-300 m, and from 300-577 m in the eastern Ionian Sea.
Most common in coastal waters between 10-60 m depth.
Tolerates low salinities. Found on mud, sand and gravel bottoms, rarely on rougher bottoms. Nocturnal species. Feeds on all kinds of bottom animals, preferably crustaceans.
Undertakes migrations with mean distances of 54-117 km per month; shows a clear annual migration cycle, moves from deeper offshore waters (10-30 m) in autumn and winter to shallower areas (<10 m) in spring.
Young are non-migratory, inhabiting inshore nursery grounds; in the Bay of Douarnenez (France) they are found to remain in shallow waters for at least 2 years.
Oviparous. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother.
Detects weak electric fields generated by other organisms (prey detection and predator avoidance) but may also generate its own weak electric fields.
Cephaleutherus maculatus Rafinesque, 1810
Hieroptera abredonensis Fleming, 1841
Raia aspera Risso, 1810
Raia rhizacanthus Regan, 1906
Raia rubus Bloch, 1784
Raja aspera Risso, 1810
Raja bonaespeiensis Fowler, 1910
Raja capensis Müller & Henle, 1841
Raja leiobatos Gronow, 1854
Raja pontica Pallas, 1914
Raja rubus Bloch, 1784